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National Trends and Disparities in Health-Care Access and

Details: and could contribute to entrenched disparities in respiratory health. Understanding long-term trends in barriers that obstruct care could help pulmonary physicians to address their patients’ needs during a time of economic recession and help to inform the debate about reforms to improve coverage and access for those with chronic respiratory disease.

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Disparities in Sleep Health and Potential Intervention

Details: Disparities in sleep health are important but underrecognized contributors to health disparities. Understanding the factors contributing to sleep heath disparities and developing effective interventions are critical to improving all aspects of heath. Sleep heath disparities are impacted by socioeconomic status, racism, discrimination, neighborhood segregation, geography, social patterns, and

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Lean Methodology in Health Care

Details: To improve the delivery of patient care, governments and health-care institutions adopted quality improvement methods that had been developed decades earlier in manufacturing industries. Many health-care practitioners are either unaware or are inexperienced about what these practices entail and whether they are successful in health care. This article reviews Lean, an improvement philosophy

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A Perspective on the Educational “SWOT” of the Coronavirus

Details: The coronavirus pandemic has disrupted clinical practice, health-care organizations, and life. In the context that “a crisis is a terrible thing to waste,” as disruptive as the pandemic has been to traditional practices—both clinically and educationally—opportunities have also presented. Clinical benefits have included the propulsion of clinical innovation, including such items as the

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Health Care in China

Details: Over the past 2 decades, significant progress has been made in improving the health-care system and people's health conditions in China. Following rapid economic growth and social development, China's health-care system is facing new challenges, such as increased health-care demands and expenditure, inefficient use of health-care resources, unsatisfying implementation of disease management

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Measurement of Health-Related Quality of Life in the

Details: This occurs because good health on the SOBQ and SGRQ is associated with lower scores, while better health is associated with higher scores for the SF-36 and QWB-SA. Figure 1 places the means for the general QOL measures in context by showing the mean scores in relation to normative populations matched for age and gender.

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Grain Dust and Health

Details: It has been known for centuries that grain dust can cause acute conjunctival, nasal and respiratory symptoms in susceptible individuals. The consequences of symptomatic, recurrent, long-term exposure, however, have not been established with certainty. Epidemiologic studies1,2 have shown that 40-75 percent of grain workers experience symptoms of cough, expectoration, wheezing, chest tightness

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Exposure of Health Care Workers to Aerosolized Pentamidine

Details: In patients, urinary levels of pentamidine have been shown to reflect pulmonary deposition of aerosolized drug. Using urinary levels and air filter samples, we assessed factors responsible for health care worker (HCW) exposure. We measured serial urine samples in HCWs who administered aerosol pentamidine over an 11-month period and compared them with serial urine levels measured over 30 days

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World Health Organization Lung Cancer Classification

Details: The first World Health Organization (WHO) Lung Cancer Classification was published in 1967.1 Its purpose was to provide light microscopic (LM) criteria for the various types of lung cancer so that LM diagnoses could be replicated on a world-wide basis. The acceptance of these criteria by pathologists would: 1) assure consistency and reliability of diagnoses of lung cancer on an international

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An Official Critical Care Societies Collaborative

Details: Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover

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Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life Between New

Details: Smoking is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) across all populations. Because decline in lung function and risk for COPD are lower in New Mexican Hispanic smokers compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts, the goal of this study was to ascertain whether HRQL differs between these two racial/ethnic groups and determine the factors that contribute to

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Projecting Long-term Health and Economic Burden of COPD in

Details: The health states of the Markov model were built based on different permutations of four severity stages (mild, moderate, severe, and very severe), three smoking states (current, former, and never smoker), and an absorbing state of death. The

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Theories and Principles of Health Education Applied to

Details: Health education might therefore prove more effective if it balanced the paid attention to the possible cause or causes of poor self-care with greater attention to offering systematic, pragmatic advice on changing behavior. Elements of the above principles have been described elsewhere. Howell et al, 54.

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Changes in Self-Rated Health After Sepsis in Older Adults

Details: Self-rated health worsened initially after sepsis but returned to the level of that of nonhospitalized control subjects by year 6. Mitigating sepsis-related functional disability may play a key role in improving self-rated health after sepsis.

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Epidemiology and Outcomes of Health-care–Associated

Details: Specifically, health care now reflects a continuum of care with many traditional inpatient services provided in outpatient settings. Invasive medical therapies are now routinely administered in nursing homes and rehabilitation hospitals, and many surgeries are performed in outpatient-based surgical centers. Additionally, some patients regularly

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Sleep and Health Among Collegiate Student Athletes

Details: Although the link between sleep, health, and performance has been well documented, research on this link in collegiate student athletes is still in its infancy. A large body of evidence indicates that collegiate student athletes are not obtaining enough sleep, but less is known about their sleep quality, patterns, and the impact on health and performance.

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Marijuana and Lung Disease

Details: Complicating this public health issue is the observation that most marijuana smokers also smoke tobacco, requiring methods of analysis that control for concomitant tobacco use and examine possible interactive effects and/or restricting the analysis to a comparison of marijuana smokers alone vs nonsmokers of any substance.

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Mobile Health Technologies in Cardiopulmonary Disease

Details: Mobile health (mHealth) technologies are modernizing medicine by affording greater patient engagement, monitoring, outreach, and health-care delivery. The cardiopulmonary fields have led the integration of mHealth into clinical practice and research. mHealth technologies in these areas include smartphone applications, wearable devices, and handheld devices, among others, and provide real …

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Considerations for Reporting and Reviewing Studies

Details: Self-reported measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are increasingly used in clinical management and evaluation of patient outcomes. HRQOL measures are used to monitor patient progress and treatment response, investigate effects of medical interventions, and provide patient-based data for quality improvement initiatives and policy decisions.

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The Role of Chest Imaging in Patient Management During the

Details: With more than 900,000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50,000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community

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Preparing for the COVID-19 Pandemic

Details: New York State had its first case of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 on March 1, 2020, a health-care worker returning from Iran. The second confirmed case was on March 2 and was thought to be the first caused by community spread. As of March 19, 18 days after the first confirmed case, New York City had 2,469 confirmed cases, and the state had 4,152.

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Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Respiratory Health, and Health

Details: Health-care providers should consider referring adolescents with common asthma symptoms, especially those exposed to tobacco smoke, to a formal evaluation to assess symptoms and ensure that undiagnosed cases are adequately identified, treated, and well controlled. We were limited to NHANES health-care utilization variables and were unable to

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Health-Related Quality of Life of Persons With Sarcoidosis

Details: Patients were also asked to rate their values for their current health state on a scale of 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). After the clinic visit, patients performed spirometry, including measurement of the FEV 1 and the FVC, which we have reported as a percentage of predicted values adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, and height.

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The Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring

Details: Almost one in five patients who are hospitalized with CAP requires intensive care. Poverty is associated with CAP in the ICU. Nearly one-half of patients with CAP in the ICU will die within one year. Because of its significant burden, CAP in the ICU should be a high priority in research agenda and health …

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism During the

Details: The coexistence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary embolism (PE), two life-threatening illnesses, in the same patient presents a unique challenge. Guidelines have delineated how best to diagnose and manage patients with PE. However, the unique aspects of COVID-19 confound both the diagnosis and treatment of PE, and therefore require modification of established algorithms.

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Vaping-Related Acute Parenchymal Lung Injury

Details: The outbreak of vaping-related acute lung injury in the United States, named EVALI (e-cigarette or vaping product use associated acute lung injury), has reignited concerns about the health effects of vaping. Initial case reports of vaping-related lung injury date back to 2012, but the ongoing outbreak of EVALI began in the summer of 2019 and has been implicated in 2,807 cases and 68 deaths as

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Risk of Misdiagnosis, Health-Related Quality of Life, and

Details: Obesity and asthma both cause breathlessness, and there is a risk of misdiagnosis of asthma in patients who are obese. Impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased BMI increase physician attendance rates, increasing this risk. We explored the possibility of misdiagnosis and the relationship between BMI, HRQoL, and other traditional measures of asthma severity in subjects who

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COPD Readmissions

Details: health-care systems (public vs private, inner-city vs rural vs suburban) may account for significant differences in readmission policies and the availability of interventions.4 Approximately 10% to 55% of readmissions after an “index admission” for AECOPD may be preventable. Factors thought to contribute to early readmission

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Health Services Burden of Undiagnosed and Overdiagnosed

Details: The rate of health services use in the 4 years prior to each participant’s index date was described in terms of all-cause hospitalizations and ED and ambulatory care visits. Because misdiagnosis might cause burden to be misattributed to the wrong disease, health services for all causes were considered.

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Burden of Adult Community-acquired, Health-care-Associated

Details: We found that public health efforts to reduce the large burden of pneumonia will require efforts focusing on pneumonia acquired both in community and noncommunity settings. Although immunization is an effective strategy already successfully used by health departments to prevent CAP, further collaboration with nursing homes, hospitals, and

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What Can Public Health Contribute to the Private Practice

Details: Health needs and problems of our people are affected greatly by these social, economic, industrial and population changes. Medicine has been changing too. Based upon science, the profession has been profoundly influenced by the dynamic progress of science in its broadest sense. One indication of this change is the fact that over half the

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POINT: Is ICD-10 Diagnosis Coding Important in the Era of

Details: Although the terms International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) and big data are relatively new, the goal has been the same for decades: to leverage information collected through the routine operation of the health system to better understand predictors of clinical outcomes, implement data-driven strategies to improve outcomes,1 and

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Adequacy of the Provider Workforce for Persons With

Details: Access and quality of health care for cardiopulmonary disease in the United States ranks poorly compared with economically similar nations. No recent comprehensive assessment of the cardiopulmonary workforce is available. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate current published evidence about the workforce caring for persons with cardiopulmonary disease.

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Developing a Mobile Health Application to Assist With

Details: In specialty clinics, a staff physician is often required to direct patient flow through the clinic and performs all documentation for coding/billing. In response to the workload created by increased patient volume, many specialty clinics have implemented protocols for both disease treatment and coordination of clinic flow. In this article, we review the literature on using mobile technology

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Scarce Resource Allocation During Disasters

Details: the expertise of certain participants. Health-care and disaster workers included individuals with professional backgrounds in disasters or health, or both (eg, public health, health care, emergency medical services, emergency management); all others were assigned to the layperson groups. Lay participants were recruited through newspaper

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Theories and Principles of Health Education Applied to Asthma

Details: tive health education underlie the application of these various models of behavior change. These include the notion that a need for change and room for change exist;that the initial and final stages in the *From the Institute of Health Promotion Research, Faculty of Graduate Studies, and Department of Health …

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A New Self-Administered Questionnaire to Monitor Health

Details: To develop and validate a brief, computer-scannable, self-administered questionnaire to monitor health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. The Seattle Obstructive Lung Disease Questionnaire (SOLQ) consists of 29 items measuring four health dimensions: physical function, emotional function, coping skills, and treatment satisfaction.

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Health-Care–Associated Pneumonia

Details: Patients residing in long-term care facilities, and individuals who have recently been hospitalized or who have come in contact with the health-care environment (eg, therapy in a dialysis center) are an expanding part of our population. In 1990, approximately 1.6 million people resided in nursing homes, but this number is expected to reach 5.3 million in 2030.12 In this population, infection

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Physical and Social Environment Relationship With Sleep

Details: Sleep health is a multidimensional construct that includes adequate duration, quality, and appropriately timed sleep that may be influenced by environmental factors. In this review, we focus on how an individual’s living and sleeping environment, both the surrounding neighborhood physical and social features and the atmosphere around them, may impact their sleep health.

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Developing Physician Leaders

Details: Health care is beset by paradox and challenges today—and these challenges demand great leadership. The paradox regards the gap between the need for teamwork in health care and physicians’ traditional training as “heroic lone healers.” The challenges regard the needs to pivot from volume-based care to value-based care and in doing so, to satisfy the goals of the “triple aim

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Self-Rated Health Predicts Acute Exacerbations and

Details: The frequency of self-rated health as poor or very poor increased from 8% in GOLD stage II to 15% in GOLD stage III, and 30% in GOLD stage IV. Poor or very poor self-rated health was more common in patients with acute exacerbations (20% vs 6%, P = .027) and in …

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Projecting Long-Term Health and Economic Burden of COPD …

Details: The health-related quality of life data stratified according to GOLD severity grades were derived from published literature that used EuroQol five-dimensional instruments that provide utility scores associated with a health state.19,23-25 The utility scores are continuous measures between 0 and 1, with 0 representing the worst

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ICU Telemedicine Reduces Interhospital ICU Transfers in

Details: Center for Comprehensive Access & Delivery Research & Evaluation (CADRE), Iowa City VA Health Care System, Iowa City, IA. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Occupation Medicine, University of Iowa Roy J. …

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Sleep and Health Among Collegiate Student Athletes

Details: Although the link between sleep, health, and performance has been well documented, research on this link in collegiate student athletes is still in its infancy. A large body of evidence indicates that collegiate student athletes are not obtaining enough sleep, but less is known about their sleep quality, patterns, and the impact on health and performance.

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Measurement of Health-Related Quality of Life in the

Details: four mental health scales (ie, mental health, role emotional, vitality, and social functioning). We used both summary scores (PCS and MCS) and individual scale scores in our analysis. The QWB-SA is a comprehensive measure of health-related QOL that includes the following five sections: acute symptoms;

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Impaired respiratory health and life course transitions

Details: impaired respiratory health as an intermediate phenotype on the continuum between ideal respiratory health and chronic lung disease.6 This approach focuses on identifying risk factors from early life to young adulthood that may serve as targets for interception of impaired health before it becomes disease.6 In this review, we will use this

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Recognition and Management of Protracted Bacterial

Details: Health seeking for children with chronic wet cough can be facilitated through provision of culturally secure health information. Physician proficiency in the management of PBB can be improved with KT strategies which include training in culturally informed management, leading to better health outcomes. Comprehensive strategies that include both families and health systems are required to

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The Use of Health-Care Resources in Obesity

Details: the long-term health-care utilization of OHS patients has not been rigorously reviewed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that OHS patients are heavy users of health-care resources in a manner that is similar to that by OSAHS patients and that the institution of treatment also will result in a reduction in health …

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